Review Sheet -- Test 2 (Week 8/9) Biology 1224 -- Entomology; James Adams

Infraclass Neoptera; Division Endopterygota

Superorder Hymenopteroidea: Chapter 16, page 334; Chapter 41
        One order is included in this superorder -- the Hymenoptera. Considered to be quite
distinct from all other endopterygotes: they have numerous Malpighian Tubules (unlike the 4 to 6
in all other endopterygotes); wing venation is very different, with lots of fusions and several large
cells. They are probably most closely related to the Mecopteroids, as there are several
hymenopteran families that have caterpillar-like larvae similar to the Mecoptera and Lepidoptera,
and some also have pupae enclosed in a cocoon.

Order Hymenoptera ("membrane-winged") -The Bees, Wasps, Ants, Sawflies, etc. (Chapter 41)
        Minute to large insects, usually with membranous wings, though many ants wingless.  Head
typically hypognathous, with mandibles adapted for chewing; labium often elongated (sometimes
extremely) and aids in drinking (nectar); antennae typically obvious and sometimes quite long and
filiform. Prothorax small and collarlike, though larger in ambulatory species (ants); mesothorax large
and fused with smaller metathorax; wings membranous, almost always with clear areas and with
several cells; veins often fused/reduced in number, and small species with small wings often nearly
veinless; wing coupling by hamuli (hooked setae on leading edge of hindwings). Primitive families
(Symphyta) with abdomen relatively unmodified; in more advanced families, abdomen with first
segment (propodeum) fused to metathorax; second segment typically narrowed into a petiole
(stem) for increased flexibility; rest of abdomen enlarged. Females typically with slicing or piercing
ovipositor for laying eggs in plant stems or in animal tissues (larvae); modified into a stinger in many
advanced families (males DON'T sting). The stinger venomizes prey for immobilization, but may be
used in defense against vertebrate predators, particularly in social species, and the venom produces
significant pain in vertebrates. As such, many species are warningly colored.
        Larva very caterpillar like, with several pairs of abdominal prolegs, in free-living forms; more
grublike or maggotlike in internal plant feeding and in nest-building (caregiving) species, such as in
the Apocrita. Larvae of Apocrita do not have the midgut connected to the hindgut; they are fed by
adults a very nutritious soup that is mostly absorbed; avoids contamination of the nest with fecal
matter; the gut completes development in the last larval instar, and the gut is voided before pupation.
In parasitoid species, first instar is often well developed, but head capsule and legs become reduced
after infesting host. Pupa is adecticious, but usually exarate, often enclosed in a cocoon.
        Mating may be in the air, or on some surface, frequently where the females are visiting for food.
In social species, females (queens) can often control the sex of the offspring by storing sperm in her
spermatheca
, and may be able to make sterile stinging females (workers in social species) and
haploid males for when mating is necessary to produce another generation. A few species of wasps
are entirely parthenogenetic, exclusively producing females.
        The Hymenoptera includes a lot of beneficial species, such as pollinators and predators on a
number of herbivorous insects. Additionally, a number of species are parasitoids on larvae of a huge
number of species in different orders, including some very obnoxious hymenopteran species as well
(such as Fire Ants). Some species are even hyperparasitoids. As such, these species have been
used for biological control. The Honeybee is useful not only as a pollinator, but for its honey and wax.
There are some damaging species (gall wasps, sawflies) and nuisance species (stinging species of bees,
wasps, ants), though beneficial species outnumber destructive ones.
        Many species social, though there are a lot of solitary nest builders as well.
        Number of Hymenoptera likely somewhat less than the 250,000+ Lepidoptera, but the small
parasitoid species of Hymenoptera may bring the number of Hymenoptera in excess of 150,000
species.
    Suborders:
        Symphyta -- Abdomen not narrowed at thorax.
        Likely encountered subfamilies in the Symphyta include:
          Tenthredinidae, Cimbicidae, Diprionidae (and others): Sawflies
          *Siricidae: Horntails
        Apocrita -- Abdomen distinctly narrowed at thorax, having the appearance of a "waist".
        Likely encountered families in the Apocrita include:
          *Ichneumonidae: Ichneumon Wasps; parasitoids, typically with long ovipositors.
            Braconidae: Smaller but similar to Ichneumons
            Evaniidae: Evaniid or Ensign wasps; larvae parasites on cockroach oothecae.
            Gasteruptiidae: Adults on flowers, larvae parasites on other wasp larvae.
            Cynipidae: Gall wasps and others; most likely to encounter the (fuzzy) galls.
            Chalcididae: Chalcidid wasps; small parasites, often with bizarre body shape
            Leucospididae: Larger than preceding; parasites resembling small yellow jackets
            Pteromalidae: Small, but commonest of the chalcidoid families
          *Chrysididae: Cuckoo Wasps; relatively small but stunningly colored insects;
                parasites on other wasps and bees; females do not sting, but roll into a ball when
                held; larvae parasites on beetle larvae
            Tephiidae: Tephiid wasps; often large with elongated, striped, hairy abdomen
            Scoliidae: Similar to tephiids; our commonest is black with orange abdominal end
          *Mutilidae: Velvet Ants; also hairy; wingless females; stinger is extremely long
          *Formicidae: Ants
            Pompiliidae: Spider Wasps; sometimes very large (such as the Tarantula Hawk)
          *Vespidae: Potter Wasps, Yellow Jackets, Hornets, Paper Wasps and others; some
                of the most familiar wasps; some are social
          *Sphecidae: Mud Daubers, Thread-waisted Wasps, Sand Wasps, and others; all
                species solitary; many elongate species but some much more stout
        (Bees: superfamily Apoidea)
            Colletidae: Yellow Faced and Plasterer Bees; typically with light colored fuzzy frons
            Andrenidae: robust bees; dark-striped or darkish colored bees
          *Halictidae: Many dark colored, but small gold or green bees are these.
          *Megachilidae: Leaf Cutter Bees; robust bees; hold wings out while visiting flowers
            Anthophoridae: Digger Bees, Cuckoo Bees; Diggers large and robust, ground
                dwelling; Cuckoos lay eggs in other hymenopteran nests, and larvae eat the other
                species brood.  This family frequently included in the Apidae as a subfamily
          *Apidae: Carpenter Bees, Bumblebees, Honeybees
        As is the case within the Diptera (yet to be discussed), be aware that there are a number of
other families that contain minute species, so small that some lay eggs inside eggs of other small
hymenopterans.