Parnassius smintheus -- on the Alpine tundra in Colorado (© James Adams, 2005)



SURVIVORSHIP CURVES



EXAMPLES:       Type I                                                                                    Type II


                Type III




Age Structure -- Trees:  White Oaks in Illinois                          Rio Grande Cottonwood in New Mexico      


SURVIVORSHIP -- much more complex than simply type I, II, or III

           Example:  Finch (Geospiza conirostris) on the Galapagos