Chapter 14 -- Exploitative Interactions

        The mustard Arabis holboellii . . . infected by Puccinia monoica . . . resulting in a pseudoflower.

Cactoblastis cactorum and Opuntia cactus
Cactus Moth Caterpillars [Cactoblastis cactorum]

Rabbit Papilloma Virus














The classic -- Canadian Lynx and Snowshoe Hares


Unusual Predator/Prey Interaction


CHAPTER 15 -- Mutualisms

Pollination:  Who pollinates these flowers?

  1. 1.Insects (bees/wasps, beetles, butterflies/ moths, flies) -- diurnal or nocturnal;
    good chemical sense (smell) and good vision
  2. 2.Hummingbirds -- diurnal; poor sense of smell; good vision; broad color vision
  3. 3.Bats -- nocturnal; good sense of smell; decent vision
                . . . so . . .
What differences should there be in flowers pollinated by these different pollinators?

                           Costa Rica, Lantana,  Copyright James K. Adams, 1985

                                     Costa Rica, Hibiscus,  Copyright James K. Adams, 1985

                                           Mexico,  Copyright James K. Adams, 1988

                                                        Costa Rica,  Copyright James K. Adams, 1985

                                         Mexico, Agave, Copyright James K. Adams, 1988

  Bullhorn Acacia and Ants

                            Copyright Dan L. Perlman, 2005-2007

Helianthella and Ants

Crabs and Corals


 Orchids and orchid bees

Yucca and Yucca Moths