NERVOUS SYSTEM STRUCTURES - To Know

The following is the list of structures you need to know for the lab practical. As much as possible, 
I have followed the order of presentation in the textbook.

Neuron structure and types:
        Cell bodies, dendrites, axons, terminals
Glial types:
        CNS -- astrocytes, microglia, oligodendrocytes (myelin sheath), ependymal cells (CSF)
        PNS -- Schwann cells (myelin sheath w/ nodes of Ranvier), satellite cells (in DRG)

VENTRICLES: Each has its own choroid plexus (patch of ependymal cells)

CEREBRUM - encloses lateral ventricles; cranial nerves I & II from here
   
  GENERALIZED FEATURES:
   
     Gyri -- precentral, postcentral
   
     Sulci -- central, lateral
   
     Fissures -- longitudinal, transverse
   
     Hemispheres
   
     Lobes -- frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal, insula

    CORTICAL REGIONS (gray matter):
  
       Primary motor area (precentral gyrus), Primary somatosensory area (post-central 
            gyrus), premotor cortex, prefrontal cortex, visual (occipital) cortex, auditory cortex
        Association Areas 

    WHITE MATTER (tracts):
        Commissures -- corpus callosum, interthalamic adhesion* (see diencephalon below)
        Association and Projection fibers (tracts) -- decussation of pyramids
        Olfactory Bulbs and tracts
        Optic nerves/Optic chiasma

DIENCEPHALON -- two halves enclose third ventricle
 
    THALAMUS*: interthalamic adhesion represents commissure between two halves
 
    HYPOTHALAMUS: associated structures include mammillary bodies, infundibulum 
        (stalk) for pituitary gland
 
    EPITHALAMUS: pineal gland, choroid plexus (in roof of third ventricle)




BRAIN STEM  
    MIDBRAIN:
Cerebral peduncles surrounding cerebral aqueduct (connects third and 
        fourth ventricles); corpora quadrigemina (four bodies), including the superior and 
        inferior colliculi; superior cerebellar peduncles
9, cranial nerves III & IV from here
 
   PONS: middle cerebellar peduncles 9, cranial nerves V - VII
 
   MEDULLA OBLONGATA: inferior cerebellar penducles9, cranial nerves VIII - XII
        from here; decussation of pyramids

CEREBELLUM -- with pons and medulla, surround fourth ventricle
   
     Hemispheres connected by vermis; folia, lobes and fissures (don=t need to know specifics),
arbor vitae (cerebellar white matter), connections to all three brainstem regions by cerebellar
peduncles (see
9 above)

BRAIN COVERINGS:
 
    Meninges -- dura mater (periosteal and meningeal layers) with dural sinuses, arachnoid
            mater with arachnoid villi, pia mater
 
    Meningeal spaces -- subdural, subarachnoid

SPINAL CORD
    GENERALIZED FEATURES:
   
     Meninges (as around brain); with epidural space
   
     Conus medullaris, filum terminale, and cauda equina
   
     Cervical/lumbar enlargements
   
     Anterior median fissure/posterior median sulcus
   
     Central Canal (through gray commissure)

    GRAY MATTER:
   
     gray commissure; posterior horns (synapses with interneurons from sensory 
            neurons), lateral horns (in certain regions only; cell bodies of autonomic  
            motor neurons), anterior horns (cell bodies of somatic motor neurons)

    WHITE MATTER:
   
     posterior, lateral, anterior funiculi (columns; ascending [sensory] and descending [motor[)

    ROOTS and SPINAL NERVES:
       
ventral roots (motor neurons); dorsal roots (sensory neurons) and their ganglia 
        (cell bodies of sensory neurons, with satellite cells surrounding the cell bodies), 
   
     dorsal and ventral rami (Chapter 13, pg. 502 - 503), gray and white rami 
        communicantes and sympathetic chain (paravertebral) ganglia (Chap. 14,
        pgs. 531 - 533)