Circulatory System Structures - To know for the lab practical; know appropriate
   
     epithelial linings (simple squamous everywhere)
                                                                                        BIOL 2213: Dr. Adams
BLOOD
I. Plasma 
II. Formed Elements:
   
     Erythrocytes (Hematocrit)/Reticulocytes
        Platelets
        Leukocytes:     Granulocytes - Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophils
             Agranulocytes - Lymphocytes (B & T), Monocytes (Macrophages)

HEART Know pathway of blood flow through heart; systemic/pulmonary circuits (see
        back of this sheet)
I. Coverings:
        Fibrous pericardium
        Serous pericardium: Parietal and Visceral* layers
II. Heart Wall:
        Epicardium (visceral serous pericardium*)
        Myocardium (with fibrous skeleton)
        Endocardium (continuous with vessel endothelium)
III. External/Internal features (general):   Cardiac Notch in left lung
        Landmarks: Apex/Base
        Anterior/Posterior Interventricular Sulci
        Interventricular/Interatrial septa (interatrial with Fossa Ovalis)
        Atrioventricular groove (sulcus; also called Coronary Sulcus)
                Major blood vessels of coronary circulation follow sulci (see below+)
IV. Atria and Ventricles: left and right
        Pectinate muscles/Trabeculae carneae
        Papillary muscles, with Chordae tendineae
V. Heart Valves:
        Atrioventricular valves: Tricuspid (right)/Bicuspid or Mitral (left)
        Semilunar valves (also three flaps [tricuspid]): Pulmonary/Aortic
VI. +Coronary Circulation: (first branches off of aorta)
        Arteries: Left Coronary - branches: Anterior Interventricular and Circumflex
                Right Coronary - branches: Marginal and Posterior Interventricular
        Veins: Great/Middle/Small Cardiac Veins; Cardiac Sinus
VII. Cells: Cardiac muscle cells, with Intercalated Discs

VESSELS
I. Vessel Walls: three layers (Tunics) (Pgs.693-694)
        Tunica intima (interna)/Tunica media/Tunica adventitia (externa)
II. Vessel Terminology: Anastomoses (Pgs. 693-699)
        Arteries: Elastic (conducting), Muscular (distributing), Arterioles
        Capillaries (in Beds): Continuous, Fenestrated, Sinusoidal
                Control of blood flow through Capillary beds:  Precapillary Sphincters
        Veins (with Valves): Veins, Venules, Venous Sinuses

III. Pulmonary Circuit Vessels: (pg. 722 in text)
        Pulmonary Trunk/Pulmonary Arteries/Lobar Arteries
        Pulmonary Veins
IV. Systemic Circuit Vessels: (pgs. 723-744 in text)
        Full body views:  Arteries -- pg. 725, Veins -- pg. 737
    A. Arteries
        Aorta: Ascending, Aortic Arch, Descending (Thoracic/Abdominal)
            Aortic Branches (in order):
              Ascending Aorta
                Coronary Arteries (see above+)
              Aortic Arch  (pgs. 726-729)
                Right Brachiocephalic - branches: Right Common Carotid, Right Subclavian
                Left Common Carotid
                Left Subclavian
                Carotid (both right and left) branches:  external and internal carotids
                Subclavian (both right and left) branches:  vertebral, basilar, Circle of Willis
              Descending Thoracic
                Intercostals (pg. 728-729)
                Bronchial (pg. 724)
              Descending Abdominal (below diaphragm) (pgs. 730-733)
                Celiac Trunk - branches: Hepatic, Gastric, Splenic
                Superior Mesenteric
                Renal
                Gonadal (Testicular/Ovarian)
                Inferior Mesenteric
                Common Iliacs
        For each subclavian artery (pg. 728-729) and vein** (pg. 740-741), know these branches:
                    Axillary, Brachial, Radial, Ulnar
        For each common iliac artery (pg. 734-735)  and vein++ (pg. 744) know:
                    External/Internal Iliacs, Femoral, Popliteal, Anterior/Posterior Tibials
    B. Veins
        Superior Vena Cava (pgs. 738-741) -- branches (in order away from the heart):
            Azygos (with intercostals), Brachiocephalics, Internal/External Jugulars,
                    Subclavians (pg. 740-741)**
            Also need to know Cephalic veins
        Inferior Vena Cava (pgs. 742-743) (through liver/diaphragm) -- branches:
            Hepatic, Renal, common Iliacs++
            Also Great Saphenous (pg. 744)