Digestive System Structures -- To know for the lab practical
     KNOW epithelial linings AND layers of wall (including nerve plexuses)
                                                            BIOLOGY 2213:  James Adams
Wall structures:
        Mucosa, submucosa, muscularis (circular/longitudinal layers), adventitia/serosa
        Submucosal/myenteric nerve plexuses

I. Mouth (Oral, Buccal cavity) 
   
     Lips (labia, labial frenula)
   
     Cheeks
   
     Tongue (Lingual Frenulum)
   
     Teeth: Incisors, canines, premolars (bicuspids), molars
   
     Salivary glands: parotid, submandibular, sublingual
   
     Palate: hard/soft, with uvula

II. Pharynx (Throat)
   
     Oropharynx, with palatine tonsils
   
     Laryngopharynx

III. Esophagus: enters stomach at gastroesophageal (cardiac) sphincter 
        passageway through diaphragm -- hiatus

IV. Stomach: enters small intestine at pyloric sphincter
   
     Regions: cardia, fundus, body, pylorus
   
     Muscular layers: outer longitudinal, middle circular, and inner oblique
   
     Curvatures: greater and lesser
   
     Rugae

V. Small intestine: enters large intestine at ileocecal valve
   
     Regions: duodenum, jejunum, ileum
   
     Modifications: plicae circulares, villi, and microvilli
   
     Peyer's patches in end of ileum

VI. Large intestine (colon)
   
     Cecum and vermiform appendix
   
     Regions: ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid
   
     Flexures: hepatic (right colic), splenic (left colic)
   
     Haustra
   
     Teniae coli

VII. Rectum and Anus
   
     Rectal Valves
   
     Anal canal, with internal and external (anus) sphincters

X. Peritoneal Structures: know where these are
   
     Greater and lesser omenta, falciform ligament, mesocolon, mesentery

Accessory structures of small intestine:
VIII. Gall Bladder and Liver (four lobes)
   
     Ducts associated with bile secretion: hepatic, cystic, common bile
   
     Ligamentum teres (formerly umbilical vein) -- joins inferior VC in liver
   
     Hepatic portal vein
        Lobules, with triad, central veins, sinusoidal capillaries, bile canaliculi

IX. Pancreas -- head and tail
   
Ducts associated with pancreatic secretions: pancreatic, accessory pancreatic,
        hepatopancreatic (common bile duct and pancreatic joined); this last
        controlled by Sphincter of Oddi, or hepatopancreatic sphincter, at juncture
        with proximal end of duodenum)
    Acinus (plural acini)             (don't forget Islets of Langerhans here, too.)