1. Define matter and list the 3 states in which matter may exist.

2. Differentiate between element and atom.

3. Differentiate between compound and molecule.

4. What 4 elements make up about 96% of the body’s weight?

Match the elements listed below with descriptions of their functions in the body:

____ 5. Element found in every organic molecule.                             C = carbon
____ 6. Component of all protein molecules, DNA & RNA.             Ca = calcium
____ 7. Element that is vital to normal thyroid gland function.         Fe = iron
____ 8. Essential component of the protein hemoglobin.                   I = iodine
____ 9. Constituent of bone and teeth: required for muscle              N = nitrogen
                contraction.                                                                           O = oxygen
____ 10. Constituent of water; necessary component of aerobic respiration.

11. What is an ion? Circle all cations below.

    O2         H+         Cl-         K+         OH-         H2CO3

12. Within the nucleus of an atom there are positively charged particles called ________________ and uncharged particles called __________________ .

13. Electrons are (positively? negatively?) charged particles that orbit around the nucleus of an atom. The number of electrons is (greater than? equal to? less than?) the number of protons in the nucleus (of an electrically neutral atom).

14. The atomic number of potassium (K) is ___________. This means that a potassium atom has _____ protons and _______ electrons.

15. What is an isotope? The isotope 14C differs from 12C in that 14C has _______ neutrons while 12C has _______ neutrons.

16. (The atomic weight of potassium is ______ .) The atomic weight is determined by averaging the mass (protons + neutrons) of all isotopes of an element. For example, the atomic weight of hydrogen is 1.00794, which means that the lightest isotope 1H is present in greater amounts than the 2H or 3H isotopes.

Identify the kind of chemical reaction described in each statement below:

        D = decomposition reaction         R = reversible reaction
        E = exchange                                S = synthesis

____ 17. The end product can revert to the original combining molecules.
____ 18. Two reactants combine to form an end product; for example, many glucose molecules bond to form glycogen.
____ 19. This reaction is partly synthesis and partly decomposition; for example, glucose + ATP - - - - > glucose-P + ADP.
____ 20. This type of reaction involves breaking bonds of large complex molecules to form many simpler molecules, often releasing heat in the process.

21. Organic compounds always contain the element ___________ . Circle the compounds below that are organic.

        water             glucose             fats             protein             nitric acid

22. Water normally is a (solute? solvent?). Name a location in the body where water functions as a lubricant.

Match the descriptions below with the answers on the right:

23. A substance that dissociates into hydroxyl ions (OH-)                     A. acid
    and one or more cations when added to water. Ex: NaOH                B. base
24. A substance that dissociates into hydrogden ions (H+)                    C. salt
    and one or more anions when added to water. Ex: H2SO4
25. A substance that dissolves in water forming cations and
    anions neither of which is H+ or OH-. Ex: CaCl2

26. Circle the pH that is the most acidic.     A. 4     B. 7     C. 10

27. Which solution has the pH closest to neutral?
        A. gastric juice         B. blood         C. lemon juice         D. milk of magnesia

28. A solution with pH 5 has (10? 20? 100?) times (more? fewer?) H+ ions than a solution with pH 7.

29. Buffers are chemicals that help the body to cope with (weak? strong?) acids or bases that dissociate easily to cause harm to the body.

30. When 2 glucose molecules (C6H12O6) combine, a disaccharide called maltose (C12H22O11) is formed. During this synthesis reaction, a water molecule is (added? removed?). Identify the reaction below (1? 2?) that demonstrates the synthesis of maltose from glucose.

31. When maltose is broken down into 2 glucose molecules, a decomposition reaction has occurred. This means that a water molecule has been (added? removed?). Identify the reaction below (1? 2?) that demonstrates the decomposition of maltose into glucose.

32. List three differences between DNA and RNA.



Match the compounds below with their primary building blocks.

____ 33. proteins                            A. nucleotides
____ 34. lipids                                 B. monosaccharide
____ 35. carbohydrates                  C. amino acid
____ 36. DNA                                 D. fatty acid & glycerol
____ 37. RNA

T  F   38. ATP contains more energy than ADP.

T  F   39. A polyunsaturated fat contains fewer hydrogen atoms than a saturated fat.

40. Define polarity, electronegativity, and valence. What is the difference between a polar molecule and an ion?


41. Distinguish between covalent (non-polar and polar), ionic, and hydrogen bonds. Give examples of molecules with these kinds of bonds.


42. Define (A) hydrophilic and (B) hydrophobic. Molecules with a predominance of which of the bonds indicated in question #41 are likely to be hydrophilic? hydrophobic?


43. What is the difference between dehydration synthesis (condensation) reactions and hydrolysis reactions? Which of the groups of organic molecules can be synthesized/decomposed (broken down) by these reactions?


44. At a minimum, you should know the following functional groups: carboxyl (carboxylic acid), amino, hydroxyl, phosphate. Additionally, I expect you to be able to draw the structure of the basic amino acid, fatty acid, glycerol and be able to identify the three separate components of nucleotides – the building blocks of the nucleic acids (DNA and RNA).


45. Distinguish between the three basic types of mixtures, i.e., solutions, colloids, and suspensions. (Biology 2212)