Chapter 4


1.      The last country to join the Commonweath of Independent States was

   a.  Russia.

                     b.  Kazakhstan.

                     c.  Georgia.

                     d.  Armenia.


2.      What was different about the Russian Empire from other European empires?

   a.  It contained land in the Americas.

   b.  It was mainly composed of adjacent land, while other empires were

        separated from the ruling country by oceans.

   c.  It contained only people of a single language and ethnic group.

   d.  It was formed in the fifteenth to the nineteenth centuries.


3.      The river routeway that brought the Vikings (Varangians) to Russia was the:

   a.  Volga.

   b.  Dnieper.

   c.  Ob.

   d.  Yenessey.


4.      The Mongol state that stretched from Siberia to Central Asia to the steppes was called:

   a.  Outer Mongolia.

   b.  China.

   c.  Irkutsk.

   d.  The Khanate of the Golden Horde.


5.      The focal point of the earliest Russian culture was centered around Slavic principalities in the area of which two modern cities?

   a.  Moscow and St. Petersburg

   b.  Vladivostok and Irkutsk

   c.  Novgorod and Kiev

   d.  Stalingrad and Leningrad


6.      The leader under whom the Soviet Union was organized in 1922 was:

   a.  Joseph Stalin.

   b.  Adolph Hitler.

   c.  Czar Nicholas I.

   d.  Vladimir I. Lenin.


7.      Under central planning, how are decisions regarding production made?

   a.  supply and demand

   b.  profit potential

   c.  government decree

d.  factory workers’ experience

8.      The city with the most polluted environment in Russia is:

   a.  Norilsk.

   b.  Moscow.

   c.  St. Petersburg.

   d.  Vladivostok.


9.      The Russian Federation consists of:

a.   Russia and the Central Asian countries that were formerly called


   b.  Russia and all the former Soviet countries except Latvia, Lithuania, and


   c.  all the former COMECON countries except East Germany and the Czech


d.      21 republics (of which the largest is Russia) and 68 smaller territorial

units with varying degrees of independence.


10.  Which of the following is a Southern Caucasus country in the CIS?

   a.  Kazakhstan

   b.  Azerbaijan

   c.  Tajikistan

   d.  Uzbekistan


11.  The world’s largest forest area is the:

   a.  Amazon rain forest.

   b.  Canadian northern forests.

   c.  tropical rain forests of Africa.

   d.  Russian taiga.


12.  Which of the following statements about environmental conditions in Russia is true?

   a.  The emphasis on heavy industry laid waste to vast areas.

   b.  The Chernobyl accident was the only incidence of radioactive pollution.

   c.  The Aral Sea is larger now than it was before the Communists came to


   d.  The Black Sea was unaffected by Soviet industrial development.


13.  Which of the following statements about Communism is true?

a.  By becoming a closed society, the Soviet Union hid many weaknesses

         from the world.

b.  By the end of the 1950s, the Soviet Union had caught up with the West

     in technological innovation.

   c.   There was incentive to conserve natural resources.

   d.   Technological innovation was used to raise worker productivity.




14.  Mikhail Gorbachev highlighted the concept of glasnost, which means:

   a.  economic restructuring.

   b.  military strength.

   c.  informational openness.

   d.  agricultural reclamation.


15.  The greatest cluster of people in Russia lives in

   a.  Siberia.

   b.  the steppes.

   c.  the far north.

   d.  western Russia.


16.  Which of the following is not true about Russia’s role in the world?

   a.  It is a permanent member of the Security Council of the United Nations.

   b.  It regular attends meetings of the Group of 8 (G8) informal consultative

          body on the world’s economy.

   c.  It has a strong capitalist economy.

   d.  It is a nuclear power.


17.  The average total fertility rate needed to maintain a population at its current level is:

   a.  1.5.

   b.  2.0.

   c.  2.1.

   d.  3.2.


18.  Woman dominate the population of Russia because of:

   a.  the birth of far more girls than boys.

   b.  male infanticide.

   c.  war deaths and persecutions under Stalin.

   d.  out-migration of men.


19.  An unusual feature of the Russian population compared to that of other regions is that:

   a.  birth rates are very high.

   b.  birth rates are rising.

   c.  death rates are rising after having fallen.

   d.  population is rising rapidly.


20.  “Secret cities” were the sites of all of the following except:

   a.  agricultural collective farms

   b.  nuclear industry

   c.  biologic warfare research

   d.  missile and weapon design



21.  Gulag refers to:

   a.  slave labor camps.

   b.  collective farms.

   c.  rural villages.

   d.  missile testing sites


22.  The most productive farming regions in the Slavic countries are in

   a.  Siberia.

   b.  the central part, north of Central Asia.

   c.  Western Russia, Ukraine, and Moldova.

   d.  the North, near the border with Finland.


23.  In 1988, Gorbachev began reforming agriculture in the Soviet Union by:

   a.  increasing the number of collective farms.

   b.  permitting individuals and cooperatives to lease land.

   c.  setting up Chinese-style communes.

   d.  instituting American-style agribusiness.


24.  The part of Russia that is one of the most ethnically and linguistically complex in the world is:

   a.  North European and Middle Volga.

   b.  Siberia and the Far East.

                     c.  North Caucasus.

   d.  territories of the Far North.


25.  The Russian region that is rich in resources and was the destination of many Russian people during Soviet times so that the local ethnic groups were outnumbered is:

   a.  North Caucasus.

   b.  North European and Middle Volga.

   c.  Siberia and the Far East.

   d.  territories of the Far North.


26.  The heartland of Russia is:

   a.  Siberia.

   b.  the North Caucasus.

   c.  west of the Urals.

   d.  the lowlands around the Caspian Sea.


27.  Which city has succeeded best in making the transition to capitalism?

   a.  Vladivostok

   b.  Irkutsk

   c.  Krasnoyarsk

   d.  Moscow



28.  The Armenian empire ruled over all the following modern areas except:

   a.  Iran.

   b.  Iraq.

   c.  Syria.

   d.  Lebanon.


29.  Massacres of Armenians were carried out in the late 1800s and early 1900s by the:

   a.  the Ottoman government.

   b.  the Soviet government.

   c.  the Roman empire.

   d.  the Assyrian empire.


30.  The South Caucasus country that will probably become a major oil producer for the world is:

   a.  Armenia.

   b.  Georgia.

                     c.  Osstia.

   d.  Azerbaijan.


31.  The largest Central Asian country in area is:

   a.  Kazakhstan.

   b.  Kyrgystan.

   c.  Uzbekistan.

   d.  Turkmenistan.


32.  In the 700s and 800s A.D., the great center of learning of Bukhoro (Bukhara) benefited from its location on:

   a.  an Interstate highway.

   b.  the ocean.

   c.  the Volga River.

   d.  the Great Silk Road.


33.  The five countries of Central Asia were once part of:

   a.  Mesotamia.

   b.  the Roman Empires.

   c.  Turkistan.

   d.  China.


34.  The most populous and dominant country in Central Asia is:

   a.  Kazakhstan.

   b.  Uzbekistan.

   c.  Turkmenistan.

   d.  Kyrgystan.


35.  After the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991, the 15 newly independent republics had strong economies.      T/F


36.  Moscow’s location near the headwaters of north- and south-flowing rivers and its proximity to the forests helped to make it the center of Muscovy.  T/F


37.  The czar who began the Westernization of Russia was Ivan the Terrible.  T/F


38.  Collectivization attempted to make farmers like factory workers.  T/F


39.  The collision of tectonic plates created high mountains and deep lakes.  T/F


40.  The rivers of Siberia are heavily used for transportation and hydroelectricity generation.  T/F


41.  The first Russian Empire and the Soviet Union built manufacturing industries around consumer markets.  T/F


42.  The main problem in exploiting the oil around the Caspian Sea is drilling for it.



43.  Perestroika, or restructuring, under Gorbachev resulted in an economic crisis.



44.  The Slavic countries all have long histories as independent countries.  T/F


45.  For visual symbolization, important landmarks in Soviet cities were replaced with symbols of Communist Party significance, such as statues and new place-names.  T/F


46.  Alexander Solzhenitsyn still lives in Vermont.  T/F


47.  Soviet women had more career choices than their Western contemporaries, but occupations like engineering and medicine were not highly regarded.  T/F


48.  Internal boundaries in Russia are drawn so that each ethnic group has its own political unit.  T/F


49.  Soviet planners often located in industrial centers for political rather than economic reasons.  T/F


50.  Ignored for many years because it appeared isolated from trade routes, Central Asia has recently come to occupy a strategic position in world affairs.  T/F


51.  Many of the ethnic conflicts in Central Asia are the result of Soviet policies.



52.  Trade between Russia and countries that joined the CIS increased after 1991.



53.  After 1991, public institutions and welfare support systems were the main losers.  T/F


54.  The Southern Caucasus lies at the ancient contact zone between the Turkish, Persian, and Roman empires.  T/F


55.  Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan constituted a major industrial area under the Soviets.  T/F


56.  Climates that are far from major bodies of water are affected by _____________.


57.  The soils under the northern forests of hardy birch and evergreen pine, fir, and spruce are called ___________________________.


58.  Nikita Khrushchev’s campaign to open new lands to farming was called the_________ _________ ____________.


59.  In ____________, the government decided to build a new capital in the northern part of the country.  However, most foreign diplomats and businesspeople stayed in the old capital, Almaty, because the new city was poorly designed and not served by international transportation networks.


60.  An autonomous Armenian territory within Azerbaijan is ____________________.