Chapter 8


  1. The common term “Middle East” for Northern Africa and Southwestern Asia reflects the worldview of:
    1. Europe.
    2. the United States.
    3. China.
    4. Russia.


  1. Which major religion did not originate in Northern Africa and Southwestern Asia?
    1. Christianity
    2. Hinduism
    3. Judaism
    4. Islam


  1. Unifying elements in Northern Africa and Southwestern Asia include:
    1. culture.
    2. economy.
    3. a dry environment.
    4. all of the above


  1. From 395 to 1453 the eastern Christian church was centered in:
    1. Jerusalem.
    2. Rome.
    3. Constantinople (Istanbul).
    4. Baghdad.


  1. The holy book of Islam is called the:
    1. Bible.
    2. Testament.
    3. Gospel.
    4. Qu’ran.


  1. In A.D. 70, Jerusalem was destroyed by:
    1. Romans.
    2. Greeks.
    3. Arabs.
    4. Babylonians.


  1. The people of northern Iraq, southeastern Turkey, western Iran, and parts of Syria that press for a state of their own are the:
    1. Arabs.
    2. Farsi.
    3. Persians.
    4. Kurds.


  1. Before World War I, Southwestern Asia was ruled by:
    1. Britain.
    2. the United States.
    3. Russia.
    4. the Ottoman Empire.


  1. As of 2000, the Persian Gulf region was believed to contain _______ percent of the world’s oil reserves.
    1. 50
    2. 65
    3. 75
    4. 90


  1. An organization that coordinates the interests of producers is a:
    1. market.
    2. business.
    3. cartel.
    4. council.


  1. After Egypt’s 1979 accord with Israel, the headquarters of the Arab League moved from Cairo to
    1. Tunis.
    2. Algiers.
    3. Baghdad.
    4. Riyadh.


  1. Islamic political groups in the 1970s
    1. based their ideas on writings of the 1930s.
    2. contradicted the basically peaceful nature of Islamic beliefs and practices.
    3. called for reestablishment of an Islamic country.
    4. all of the above


  1. Political Islam’s major victory was in
    1. Iraq.
    2. Iran.
    3. Egypt.
    4. Algeria.


  1. Which of the following statements is not true of deserts?
    1. It never rains in deserts.
    2. Winter and nighttime can be cold.
    3. Evaporation exceeds precipitation.
    4. the lower the average rainfall, the greater the variability.


  1. The __________ represents an ocean that is forming.
    1. Red Sea
    2. Persian Gulf
    3. Mediterranean Sea
    4. Tigris-Euphrates valley




  1. The White Nile River loses nearly half its water as it flows through:
    1. Khartoum.
    2. the Nubian Desert.
    3. the Sudd.
    4. the Delta.


  1. Water supplies in Northern Africa and Southwestern Asia include:
    1. rain and snowfall feeding rivers.
    2. underground reservoirs that accumulated millennia ago.
    3. desalination.
    4. all of the above


  1. After World War II, Southwestern Asia and Northern Africa achieved strategic importance because of:
    1. wars between Arabs and Israel.
    2. the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States.
    3. the huge demand in the world for oil.
    4. all of the above


  1. The major cause of population concentrations is:
    1. industrial development.
    2. water availability.
    3. oil wells.
    4. tourism development.


  1. Which Northern African country does not include parts of the Magreb?
    1. Morocco
    2. Algeria
    3. Libya
    4. Tunisia


  1. The predominant ethnic group in Northern Africa is the:
    1. Arabs.
    2. Tuaregs.
    3. Pygmys.
    4. Berbers.


  1. The activities of pirates along the coast of Northern Africa were finally ended in the:
    1. 1500s.
    2. 1600s.
    3. 1700s.
    4. 1800s.


  1. In 1976 Morocco annexed:
    1. Spanish Sahara.
    2. Algeria.
    3. the Mahgreb.
    4. the Atlas.


  1. Colonel Muammar al Qadhafi is the leader of:
    1. Algeria.
    2. Libya.
    3. Morocco.
    4. Tunisia.


  1. Which of the following statements is true about population dynamics in Northern Africa?
    1. Populations are growing slowly.
    2. Tunisia began reducing population growth shortly after independence.
    3. Polygamy is permitted in all the countries.
    4. All the countries have large numbers of elderly in their populations today.


  1. The country of Northern Africa that has a labor shortage and needs immigrants is:
    1. Algeria.
    2. Tunisia.
    3. Morocco.
    4. Libya.


  1. Colonial rulers in Northern Africa:
    1. encouraged manufacturing.
    2. appropriated land for commercial farming.
    3. left the best land for native subsistence farming.
    4. settled in very small numbers.


  1. Morocco’s most important nonagricultural primary export is:
    1. oil.
    2. gas.
    3. phosphate.
    4. gold.


  1. Most of Northern Africa’s tourists come from:
    1. the United States.
    2. Europe.
    3. China.
    4. Japan.


  1. The largest Arab country in population is:
    1. Iraq.
    2. Turkey.
    3. Saudi Arabia.
    4. Egypt.


  1. The global choke point that Egypt controls is:
    1. the Suez Canal.
    2. the Strait of Hormuz.
    3. Bab al Mandab.
    4. the Panama Canal.



  1. The ancient kingdom in the area of modern Sudan was:
    1. Assyria.
    2. Akkadia.
    3. Nubia.
    4. Massai.


  1. In which Southwest Asian country has life expectancy fallen in recent years?
    1. Jordan
    2. Syria
    3. Iraq
    4. Bahrain


  1. An important minority in northern Iraq and Syria is the:
    1. Chaldeans.
    2. Sumerians.
    3. Kalmuks.
    4. Kurds.


  1. The main language in Iran is:
    1. Farsi.
    2. Arabic.
    3. Turkish.
    4. Russian.


  1. The majority and ruling group in Iran today is:
    1. Sunni Muslims.
    2. Turks.
    3. Afghans.
    4. Shiite Muslims.


  1. The first major oil exporter in the Persian Gulf area was:
    1. Iran.
    2. Iraq.
    3. Bahrain.
    4. Kuwait.


  1. The oil-rich countries of the Persian Gulf solved their labor shortage by importing slaves.



  1. The most important art form in Islam is calligraphy.  T/F


  1. The majority of Muslims are Shite.  T/F


  1. The preferred language of the Qu’ran and Muslim prayers is Arabic.  T/F


  1. Many Islamic countries, including Iran, held memorial services for the victims of the 9/11 attacks.  T/F
  2. The Atlas and Elburz mountains are part of the same geological system as the Himalayas.


  1. The completion of the Aswan High Dam on the Nile River solved Egypt’s water problems.



  1. Many of Northern Africa’s modern cities surround enclaves of old trading and agricultural centers.  T/F 


  1. Fewer men than women in Northern Africa are illiterate.  T/F


  1. Massive indebtedness makes it difficult for Algeria, in spite of its oil and gas reserves, to attract foreign investment.  T/F


  1. The addition of Spain and Portugal to the EU increased Northern Africa’s exports to that region.  T/F


  1. The water resources of the Nile Valley are finite.  T/F


  1. The most important civil conflict in Sudan is between Muslims in the North and Jews in the South.  T/F


  1. In the future, water may surpass oil as the critical resources in Southwestern Asia.  T/F


  1. Most of Saudi Arabia’s 4 million foreign visitors are tourists.  T/F


  1. Turkey and Iran share a strategic location between Russia and Neighboring Countries and Southwest Asian oilfields.  T/F


  1. As an oil importer in the 1980s, Turkey supplied both Iran and Iraq with food and manufactured goods in return for oil.  T/F


  1. The process of drawing too much salt to the land surface by irrigation practices is __________________.


  1. The coast of Northern Africa became known as the _____________ Coast after 1200.


  1. Historic sectors of Northern African cities, valued for their social fabric, are called _____________.


  1. In a _________________ economy, manufactured goods are more important than primary products, and a variety of manufacturing products is joined by a growing service sector.


  1. A farming community in Israel in which land is owned in common is a __________.


  1. Israel claims ____________ as its capital, but other countries do not recognize it.