THE AMERICAN COLONIAL EXPERIENCE
House of Burgesses -
First Colonial Legislature, Virginia, 1619. Eventually colonial
assemblies were created in all of the Thirteen Colonies.
St Augustine, Florida - First permanent European settlement on North America, 1565.
Jamestown - First permanent English settlement in North America, 1607.
"Salutary Neglect" - from Prime Minister Robert Walpole, that Parliament should follow a lenient policy towards the Thirteen Colonies, especially about the enforcement of the Navigation Acts.
Navigation Acts - A series of legislation passed by Parliament directed at the economy of the Thirteen Colonies, in an attempt to make the colonial economy supportive of the economic success of the mother country, England (mercantilism).
Virtual Representation - the theory which suggested that Parliament made its decisions based on what was in the best interests of the entire British Empire. Thus, even though the American colonials did not vote for members of Parliament, the colonials enjoyed "representation" in Parliament.
Writs of Assistance - an open ended search warrant which did not specify the objective of the search.
Albany Plan of Union (1754) - A plan suggested by Benjamin Franklin that called for a unified colonial defensive effort to protect the Thirteen Colonies in the upcoming French and Indian War. Rejected by a colonial assembly which met in Albany, New York, which preferred to place military measures in the hands of Parliament, and the regular British Army and Royal Navy.
Interregnum (1649-60) - In England, the period between the kings. At the end of the English Civil Wars (1642-49), King Charles I was defeated by the Puritans and beheaded, and the country was ruled as a military dictatorship under Oliver Cromwell.
Glorious Revolution (1688) - Fearing that James II (House of Stuart) would restore Catholicism in England upon the birth of his newborn son and heir to the throne, Parliament overthrew James in favor of his Protestant daughter, Mary, who was married to William of Orange. All kings and queens will be required to be communicants of the Church of England in the future.
Vice Admiralty Courts - first used by British to punish those Americans who violated the Sugar act. A clear violation oft he traditional right of Englishmen to a jury of one's peers.
INTERNATIONAL WAR/COLONIAL WAR
War in European commonly spread to North America in the 17th and 18th centuries because France and England were commonly opposed to each other in these wars and because they both had colonial holdings in North America. The European wars were known by different names to the English settlers in the Thirteen Colonies.
War of the League of Augsburg/King William=s War 1689-97
War of the Spanish Succession/Queen Anne=s War 1702-1713
War of the Austrian Succession/King George=s War 1744-48
Seven Years War/French and Indian War 1754(56)-63
From a North American viewpoint, the first three wars provide no conclusive result, regardless of the European results. However, at the end of the French and Indian War, the European settlement included the loss of French Canada to the British, effectively ending the largest French colonial holding in North America. The departure of the French had serious repercussions toward the eventual desire of the Thirteen Colonies to seek independence in 1776.
The first three of these colonial wars had their origins in Europe. Events in North America supported the mother country=s efforts in Europe. Once events were concluded in Europe and a peace settlement achieved, the war in North America had no reason to continue. The European settlement would not necessarily have included results achieved in North America, making the North American results empty successes.
The French and Indian war preceded war in Europe by two years. As the European powers resume conflict to settle Frederick the Great=s land demands, the French and English settlers were already fighting over control of the Ohio River Valley. The empty results of the previous three wars were replaced by conclusive results. The British made a bigger investment in victory than did the French, and once Wolfe defeated Montcalm on the Plains of Abraham outside Quebec City, the French position in North America was doomed. The Treaty of Paris of 1763 ended the longtime French holding on the continent, and gave Canada and the Ohio River Valley to Britain.
As Britain emerged victorious from war and claimed ownership of the French holdings, Parliament decided it was high time for the Americans to assume their rightful role as members of the Empire, and begin to pay their fair share of running the Empire, paying for both colonial defense and war debts incurred in fighting the French. The attempt by Parliament to gain control of the Thirteen Colonies after 1763, which the colonials perceived as a violation of their traditional rights as Englishmen, built a consensus among the Americans to seek independence in 1776.
In 1754, at the beginning of the French and Indian War, an all-colonial conference which met in Albany, NY, rejected the idea of establishing a colonial defense in the Plan of Union. If the Thirteen Colonies could not agree to creating a basic means of defense, it seems hard to believe that they could reach a consensus of seeking independence only 13 years after the end of the French and Indian War. Clearly, the new imperial policy emerging from Parliament during the period of 1763-1776 built that consensus.
THE ROYAL FAMILY
King John - signed Magna Carta 1215, agreed that the King is not above the
law, d. 1216.
Henry VIII - Tudor, created Church of England, d. 1547
Elizabeth I - last daughter of Henry VIII, d. 1603 , last of the Tudors
James I - formerly James VI of Scotland, first of the Stuarts, d. 1625.
Charles I - son of James, d 1649, as a result of the English Civil Wars
Interregnum, Commonwealth, 1649-60 - Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell 1653-58
Restoration of the Stuarts - 1660
Charles II - son of Charles I, d. 1685
James II -brother of Charles, overthrown by Parliament in Glorious Revolution, 1688.
William and Mary - Protestant daughter of James II, d. 1695, married to William (House of Orange), d.1702.
Anne - Sister of Mary and Protestant daughter of James II, d. 1714. (House of Stuart)
George I - first of the Hanoverians, d 1727.
George II - son of George I, d. 1760.
George III - grandson of George II, King at time of American Revolution, d 1820.
KEY EVENTS, 1763-1776
Proclamation Line of 1763 - Legislation passed by Parliament designed
to keep American Colonials out of the Ohio River Valley in aftermath of French
and Indian War
Stamp Act and Stamp Act Congress
Sons of Liberty
Tea Act of 1773
Boston Tea Party - December 1773
Intolerable Acts (Coercive Acts of 1774) - Parliament's harsh response to the Boston Tea Party, closed Boston Harbor, named a military governor to Massachusetts (General Thomas Gage), and demanded restitution for damages to British East India company
1st Continental Congress - met starting September 1774
Battles of Lexington and Concord - first shots of the Revolutionary War were fired in these two towns, April 19, 1775, between British troops and American 'Minutemen' (militia), more than a year before Declaration of Independence.
2nd Continental Congress - met starting May 1775
Battle of Bunker Hill - British military victory over Americans on heights above Boston in May, 1775. Misnamed as battle actually took place on Breed's Hill. British soon evacuated Boston because of the hostile environment created by overwhelming Patriot nature of local population
Olive Branch Petition - Attempt by 2d Continental Congress to get King George III (July 1775)to intervene on behalf of the Thirteen Colonies against Parliament's harsh actions. Rejected by the king (August 1775).
Common Sense - Pamphlet written by Thomas Paine which explained the vileness of all kings, released January, 1776.
Declaration of Independence
Tindall, chapters 1-4
TERMS TO KNOW
House of Burgesses John Smith Plymouth Plantation Puritans Navigation Acts ASalutary Neglect@ Robert Walpole English Civil Wars, 1642-49 The Glorious Revolution of 1688 Royal Colony Proprietary Colony Self-governing Colony Bacon=s Rebellion Mercantilism The Enlightenment Locke/Montesquieu/Rousseau Interregnum Magna Carta Oliver Cromwell Stuart Kings Avirtual representation@ Albany Plan of Union
SAMPLE TEST QUESTIONS
Match colonial leaders with colonies.
What was the major result of the Glorious Revolution?
What was the basis of settlement of the colony of Georgia?
What is meant by the term Avirtual representation@?
What was the impact of the Enlightenment on the development of American political ideas?