THE PROGRESSIVE ERA
The Progressive Era, an era of reform, covers the period in American History from 1900, signifying the turn of the century and the end of the Gilded Age, through 1917, upon the entry of the United States into World War I. The name suggests that the Gilded Age was such a dynamic period of growth that the nation needed to take time to reform its politics, its cities, the workplace, and its foreign policy. The nation=s rapid growth and progress left many citizens in its wake, and reform was necessary to protect those who were suffering. The Progressive Era includes the presidencies of Teddy Roosevelt, William Howard Taft and Woodrow Wilson.
Among the accomplishments of the three progressive presidents are
-conservation of natural resources
-Federal Reserve System
Other reformers at other levels (state and local governments, private sector) attempted to reform the workplace, female and child labor, worked with private charities, and supported the temperance movement (alcohol abuse).
The permanent record of the Progressive Era exists in the amendments to the
-16th Amendment - progressive income tax
-17th Amendment - direct election of U.S. senators
-18th Amendment - prohibition of the manufacture of alcoholic beverages
-19th Amendment - women's right to vote
The election of 1912 represents a good example of how political parties turn winning combinations into losing ones. The GOP had owned the presidency since 1860, with the exception of Grover Cleveland=s victories in 1884 and 1892. But when Teddy Roosevelt decided to challenge his own hand picked successor, William Howard Taft, for the Republican nomination in 1912, he won 11 out of 13 primary races against the incumbent Taft, including Taft=s own home state of Ohio. When Taft still managed to win the nomination, Roosevelt decided to run as a third party candidate, under the Progressive Party (ABull Moose@) banner. With Taft and Roosevelt dividing the Republican vote in every state, Woodrow Wilson was able to win an easy victory in the Electoral College. Taft and Roosevelt split 7.5 million popular votes, against Wilson=s 6.3 million total vote.
When the United States entered into World War I, the push for reform was lost as the nation turned its eyes to events in Europe. The nation=s desire to reform waned, for upon the end of the war, the nation endorsed Harding=s presidential campaign slogan of Areturn to normalcy@ and overwhelmingly supported his election. The ARoaring Twenties@ became the new rage.
Progressive Foreign Policy
Roosevelt - Big Stick Diplomacy
******Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine
*****Treaty of Portsmouth
*****Great White Fleet
Taft - Dollar Diplomacy
Wilson - Missionary Diplomacy
Tindall, chapter 24 and Riordan, Plunkitt of Tammany Hall
TERMS TO KNOW
Women=s suffrage Progressive Income Tax Direct election of U.S. Senators Prohibition/Volstead Act AFighting Bob@ LaFollette trust busting conservation of natural resources The Great White Fleet Treaty of Portsmouth Panama Canal Big Stick Diplomacy Dollar Diplomacy Missionary Diplomacy reform politician machine politics Tammany Hall Election of 1912 and the Bull Moose Party primary political initiative recall election referendum secret ballot minimum wage child/female labor NAACP Swift v. U.S. Square Deal Roosevelt Corollary Russo-Japanese War Plessy v. Ferguson Muckrakers Socialist Party Federal Reserve System
SAMPLE TEST QUESTIONS
His foreign policy was known as ABig Stick@ diplomacy A)Taft B)Wilson C)Bryan D)Roosevelt E)McKinley
Who was the Bull Moose candidate?
From where did George Washington Plunkitt conduct his daily business?
What is honest graft?
What were the progressive amendments passed to the U.S. Constitution?
What is meant by the idea of "separate but equal"?