Detail Practice 2 Answer Key
Determine the number of major details in the paragraphs
below and make a list of these. It is useful to identify the
topic sentence and to look for transition words that suggest addition (such as
first, second, third, moreover, also, in addition, furthermore). Not all
major details are introduced with transition words.
The main idea is underlined, and
transitions are highlighted in yellow if
they signal major details.
- “An apple, a pear, a plum, a cherry, any good thing to
make us all merry” are words to an old English ballad praising, among other
things, the joys of fresh fruit. But delight has not been my experience
owning fruit trees. Fruit trees are simply more trouble than they are
worth. First of all, one has to contend with insects. Regularly spraying
is needed to guard against aphids, caterpillars, beetles, and fruit moths.
Disease is yet another problem. During the blooming period, one has to
spray to prevent fire blight, a bacterial disease that can be fatal to apple
and pear trees. Birds are an additional nuisance. Crows can pick an apple
tree clean, while bluebirds and cardinals make it difficult to enjoy even
one cherry or blueberry from the whole crop. Three major details:
insects, disease, and birds.
- Researchers use a number of techniques to increase the
return rate of questionnaires. Many will follow-up the original mailing.
This follow-up could include a postcard reminder or even a second
questionnaire. A few researchers offer inducements. For example, some
publishers offer respondents a gift certificate for Amazon.com for surveys
that are returned quickly. Another
method involves the way respondents are
selected. Some researchers simply exclude nonreaders who are unlikely to
return questionnaires or select professionals who are more likely to
respond. Three major details: follow-up, inducements, and the way
respondents are selected.
- Think validity is a simple concept? Think again!
Statistic textbooks note that there are many kinds of validity. Content
validity is the extent to which the measuring instrument covers the
content that the researcher is trying to study. Sampling validity
addresses the adequacy of the population that is to be sampled.
construct validity relates the instrument to an appropriate theoretical
framework. Three major details: content validity, sampling validity, and
- According to Melvin Seeman in his essay “On the
Meaning of Alienation,” there are very different conceptual definitions of
alienation. For some, alienation is powerlessness. Individuals who feel
powerless believe that they cannot influence outcomes no matter what they
do. Another definition focuses on meaninglessness. Here individuals do not
seem to understand why others make the decisions that they do. A
definition focuses on isolation. Isolated individuals feel separated from
society’s accepted values and norms. Three major details:
powerlessness, meaninglessness, isolation.
- In an article for WebMd, Barbara Sarnatoro argues that
certain activities waste valuable time at the gym. The
first time-waster is
socialization. While exercising with a friend may be motivating, don’t let
your routine become a social hour.
Another time-waster is resting too
long. Just because the machine you want to use isn’t available doesn’t mean
that you should head for the juice bar. Dressing at the gym itself is
a time-waster. You may find yourself conversing with someone who has just
finished working out, delaying your own routine.
Finally, failing to plan
ahead is a common time-waster. Four major details: socialization,
resting too long, dressing at the gym, failing to plan ahead.
- Most of us have trouble sticking to a regular exercise
routine. However, a few simple tips can help you stay motivated.
a variety of activities you enjoy. With variety on your side, you will be
able to exercise no matter what the weather may bring.
Next, make exercise
a priority. It needs to be more important than watching reruns on
television or surfing the Internet. In addition, try logging your
activities. Write down the number of crunches you do each day or the miles
you’re walked. Finally, reward yourself at meaningful intervals. (adapted
from an article by
WebMD) Four major details: do a variety of activities, make exercise a
priority, log your activities, reward yourself.
- An effective film
review addresses a number of elements. Acting is
one such element. Do the
actors bring the character to life? Are they believable? Cinematography is
also important. Is the lighting right? Is the camera movement jerky? In
some films, the special effects are particularly important. Does the killer
tomato look real? In addition, the soundtrack is often worthy of
discussion. Has the director included music that overpowers the scene? Does
the music evoke a sense of comedy when suspense is called for? Four
major details: acting, cinematography, special effects, soundtrack.
- Piaget theorized that children go through distinct
stages of intellectual development. The
first stage is the sensorimotor
stage, which covers the period from birth to 2 years. In this stage, the
intellectual development of the child is primarily nonverbal. The
next stage is the preoperational stage, spanning 2 years to 7 years. At this
time, children begin to use language and think symbolically.
preoperational stage comes the concrete operational stage, spanning 7 years
to 11 years. In this stage, children begin to understand the ideas of time
and space. Finally, there is the formal operations stage, spanning 11 years
on up. In this stage, abstract principles are incorporated into the child’s
thought processes. (adapted from Dennis Coon’s Introduction to Psychology,
1992) Four major details: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete
operational, formal operations.
- Not all psychologists are the same. There are a
number of different specialties to choose from. Counseling psychologists
assist with emotional and behavioral problems. Educational psychologists
may assess school programs, conduct research on factors that affect
learning, or perform standardized testing. School psychologists may be
charged with psychological testing or treating students with learning
disabilities. (adapted from Dennis Coon’s Introduction to Psychology, 1992)
Three major details: counseling, educational, school.
- A number of techniques will improve your memory.
Recitation involves repeating what you intend to learn. Spaced practice
means that you alternate study with brief rest periods.
is overlearning. Overlearning involves continuing your studies even after
you think you have mastered the material. You might
also try using mnemonic
devices. These are memory tricks that help you retrieve information.
Acronyms, acrostics, rhymes, and jingles are a few of such devices. (adapted
from Dennis Coon’s Introduction to Psychology, 1992) Four major details:
recitation, spaced practice, overlearning, mnemonic devices.
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